Bowers J S: Challenging the widespread assumption that connectionism and distributed representations go hand-in-hand.
Dissertation Abstracts International 56(11-B), The Sciences and Engineering: 6379, 2002.
Abstract: This study begins with a survey of holistic healing and pain control methods, from hands on healing techniques; to vitamin, mineral, herbal and diet-based therapies; body manipulation and movement; visualization, hypnosis, and guided imagery; meridian-based treatments of applied kinesiology and Chinese medicine (acupuncture and acupressure); art and music therapies; and several talk-based psychotherapies. This is followed by an analysis of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), from its development by Bandler and Grinder in 1975, through and including recent (1995) "state of the art techniques. The author pays particular attention to using NLP in pain management, and to the recent transpersonal direction of NLP. The research involved 48 chiropractic patients in acute pain. They were randomly divided into treatment and non-treatment groups of 24 each. Non-treatment group patients received regular chiropractic care while treatment group patients received adjunctive NLP treatments from the author, a psychologist. Before each chiropractic and NLP session, the clinicians measured pain level using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The author compared pain reduction between the two groups. On a scale of 0-10, 0 being the absence of any pain and 10 being extreme pain, the treatment group experienced an average reduction of 6.2 over an average of 2.1 NLP sessions (6 days), and the non-treatment group experienced a reduction of 1.7 over the same time. The researcher concluded that NLP is an excellent adjunctive treatment for chiropractic patients in acute pain. She notes limitations of the study (group size, lack of control on degree of patient participation, therapeutic judgment) and makes suggestions for further study. The author suggests future researchers obtain funding to permit use of larger groups, multiple and varied therapists, different milieus (e.g. medical or physical therapy offices) and other types of pain (chronic pain, PMS, cancer pain, etc.). She also suggests eval (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).