Karniol R: Stuttering, language, and cognition: A review and a model of stuttering as suprasegmental sentence plan alignment (SPA).
Psychological Bulletin 117(1): 104-124, 1995.
Abstract: Extant models of stuttering do not account for: the emergence of stuttering at the onset of productive language use; the greater incidence of stuttering during spontaneous speech, on complex sentences, and at sentence-initial positions; the greater incidence of stuttering in bilinguals' 2nd language; the apparent deficiency of stutterers in expressive and receptive language skills; the prevalence of spontaneous recovery from stuttering; and the lack of chronic physiological or articulatory deficits in stuttering children's fluent speech. The author presents a model of stuttering as points of suprasegmental sentence plan alignment (SPA). Such alignment processes occur when, due to on-line sentence production processes, SPAs adopted prior to utterance initiation need to be aligned with revised SPAs. This model parsimoniously accounts for the findings reviewed in the article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)