Fremder L A: Generalization of visual dot pattern strategies to number pattern strategies by learning disabled students.
Dissertation Abstracts International 47(11), 4055-A Columbia University Teachers College (Order = DA8704296): 116, 1986.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether training visual dot pattern strategies in learning disabled students would transfer to different visual pattern tasks as well as generalize to arithmetic sequencing. The sample consisted of 84 learning disabled and non- learning disabled students. The students were between the ages of 12-0 and 15-11. The learning disabled students' deficiency in visual dot and number pattern skills provided the rationale for training to improve these skills. The 42 learning disabled students were classified Neurologically Impaired (NI) or Perceptually Impaired (PI) in accordance with New Jersey Administrative Code Chapter 6:28. These 42 children were placed in three groups: (a) standard cognitive strategy training; (b) standard cognitive training plus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP); and, (c) a control practice group. The study consisted of three phases: (a) pretest; (b) intervention; and, (c) posttest. Intervention consisted of three 20 minute training sessions for learning disabled students every second week for six weeks. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected from the Pattern Recognition Assessment (PRA) which was specifically developed for this study. The results showed significant transfer effects for both treatment groups when compared to the practice group but no difference between the treatment groups. Significant generalization effects occurred within all groups including the control group. The control group improvement, which negated treatment effects for generalization, was interpreted as chance variability.