Helm D J: Neurolinguistic Programming: gender and the learning modalities create inequalities in learning: a proposal to reestablish equality and promote new levels of achievement in education.
Journal of Instructional Psychology 18(3): 167-169, 1991.
Abstract: Examined among 298 men and 132 women (aged 18-45 yrs) (1) whether differences exist between the grades achieved as to the learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and various combinations) and (2) whether differences exist between sexes as to the grades achieved in the learning modalities. Ss were evaluated for 2 yrs using an eye movement chart developed according to neurolinguistic programming principles. The auditory Ss scored lower and the kinesthetic-auditory Ss scored higher. Overall, the kinesthetic (or kinesthetic combinations) Ss attained the highest grade averages, with visual Ss an overall second. The average for female Ss was higher in all but the auditory modality. (PsycLIT Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)