Johannsen C A: Predicates, mental imagery in discrete sense modes, and levels of stress: the Neurolinguistic Programming typologies.
Dissertation Abstracts International 43(8), 2709-B United States International University (Pub = AAC8229638): 207, 1982.
Abstract: The Problem: The problem which this study addressed was whether the sense mode (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, gustatory and olfactory) implications of predicates in a standard interview could be validated as indicators of representational systems by subject reports of mental imagery in those same sense modes. This study further addressed the validity of the assertion that restricted sensory maps of reality can be found among persons experiencing high levels of stress.
Method: Twenty-two individuals participated in the study. Data were secured from a standard interview, the Survey of Mental Imagery, the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire, and a short demographic survey. The study hypothesized that (1) there would be no significant positive relationship between predicates and tests of mental imagery in the five sense modes, and (2) there would be no significant differences between high and low stress groups when compared on the extent to which the predicates and imagery of each manifested reliance on relatively fewer senses. Hypotheses were tested for significant convergence with product moment correlations, and for differences with two-by-five analyses of variance.
Results: Analysis of the data resulted in three statistically significant findings. (1) Visual predicates and mental imagery were negatively correlated (p<.01), suggesting that the measures tap different phenomena. (2) Positive correlation (p<.05) was found between kinesthetic predicates and image controllability. However, based on other considerations, it was concluded that mental imagery does not validate predicates as indicators of representational systems. Neither predicates nor mental imagery appear to make the distinctions necessary for a valid sense of mode typology. Predicates would have classified most subjects as the kinesthetic type, while mental imagery would have classified most subjects as the mixed sense type. (3) High stress group imagery means were higher and standard deviations were lower than those of the low stress group (p<.01), particularly so in the gustatory and olfactory senses. This result is in the opposite direction from that predicted by the restricted maps theory. High levels of stress probably involve overly elaborate mental representations, rather than overly simplistic ones. Predicate sense modes do not seem to detect the levels of mental organization relevant to levels of stress. All other findings were not statistically significant.