Johnson K D: Eye positions and associated mental activity as determined by sensory-based words spoken.
Dissertation Abstracts International 45(8), 2691-B Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities (Pub = AAC8425708): 119, 1983.
Abstract: This research examined a general association and six specific associations between eye positions and verbalizations indicating particular types of mental activity. The eye position model used in this study was similar to the Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) model developed by Bandler and Grinder (1975-1983). Videotaped eye movements/positions (line of sight in regard to their body) of the 15 male and 15 female subjects were scored by a principle rater. These judgments were compared with those of a second rater for randomly selected portions of each subject's session. Interrater agreement (86%) was assessed by percent of agreement in the nine noted eye positions (center, up, up-right, right, down-right, down, down- left, left, and up-left). Scoreable units were eye positions (except center, up, and down) and associated word types (visual "construction", auditory "construction", bodily sensations, auditory "digital" memory, auditory "tonal" memory, and visual memory). The main hypothesis stated an association between eye positions and sensory-based words spoken. An analysis of the total scorable units for all 30 subjects yielded a p<.0001, a one-sample test of proportions for all six hypothesized associations yielded a p<.0001, and an analysis using the modal values of eye positions for each word-type also yielded a p<.0001. Thus the main hypothesis was strongly supported. The six specific hypotheses for eye-position/word-type combinations were supported by the latter two analyses of the main hypothesis. They were also supported by a null hypothesis stating that the modal values would be three times the expected proportion of one-sixth. This analysis indicated a failure to reject this null hypothesis at alpha=.1. Thus all of the hypotheses were supported. "Normal" and "reversed" eye movement/position patterns were an important discrimination in this study. The effect of this phenomenon was discussed with regard to other eye movement/position studies. A major consideration of this study was the implications of the eye movement/position phenomenon for psychotherapy.