Jupp J J: Neurolinguistic Programming: an experimental test of the effectiveness of "leading" in hypnotic inductions.
British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis 6(2): 91-97, 1989.
Abstract: Neurolinguistic programmers claim that most individuals have a preferred (primary) representational system (PRS) which may be in the visual, auditory or kinaesthetic sensory modalities. They suggest that primary systems can be assessed by observation and categorization of eye movements following questions. Programmers propose that hypnotic inductions which focus first on primary modalities and then on other modalities, substantially enhance hypnotic responsiveness (utilization). This proposition was investigated using separate samples of subjects assessed as having visual, kinaesthetic or auditory primary systems who were first tested on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Suscetibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) and then on procedures which employed hypnotic inductions designed to lead them from their primary systems to other systems. Test, re-test HGSHS:A behaviour responsiveness and hypnotic depth estimates were available from a control group. The effects of induction on re-test responsiveness and depth were examined. The results did not support neurolinguistic programming propositions about the effects of tailored inductions.